Fat Loss And Appetite Control


Jack of all Trades
I got this article years ago doing research. It is very informative IMO. :D

For many of us weight loss is a tricky process. The first two weeks are
great - mainly because water weight comes off quickly - but when it comes
down to chipping away at that remaining body-fat it can become a real
There are several factors in the body that control the accumulation and
usage of body-fat. These factors are: thermogenesis, the sympathetic
nervous system, metabolism, brain functioning, and hormones.
Thermogenesis, meaning, "heat production," is an important process in our
bodies. This process of generating body heat occurs in muscle and brown
adipose tissue (tissue that stores fat cells). There are three types of
thermogenesis. These include work (exercise) induced, thermo-regulatory
(which regulates our body temperature), and diet-induced. Diet-induced
thermogenesis involves the immediate conversion of a certain amount of the
food we eat into heat. By this process, our body burns the calories it
doesn't need. The level of diet-induced thermogenesis may be what
determines if a person has too much body fat. For example, a meal may
cause a greater increase in heat production in a lean person than in an
overweight person. In the overweight person, the food energy may be stored
instead of being converted to heat. Lean people increase thermogenesis in
response to meals, exercise, and cold weather while overweight people show
less of these responses.
One reason for a reduced thermogenesis in overweight people is impaired
sympathetic nervous system activity1. The sympathetic nervous system, a
branch of the nervous system not under our conscious control, controls the
heart, blood vessels, sweat glands, and metabolism. In some individuals, a
lack of stimulation by the sympathetic nervous system may result in a
slowed metabolic rate and reduced thermogenesis.
Another major factor contributing to decreased thermogenesis is insulin
insensitivity2. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that
increases the rate at which cells in the body take up glucose (blood
sugar). Glucose is the fuel that body cells use for energy and is
necessary for the body to run properly. Proper regulation of blood sugar
involves the secretion of insulin (to lower blood sugar) in response to
the rise in blood sugar that occurs after eating. Either a lack of insulin
or insensitivity to insulin can result in diabetes. Diabetes is a chronic
disorder of metabolism that involves fasting elevations in glucose levels
and an increased risk of heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, and loss
of nerve function. When the cells of the body become insensitive to
insulin, the delivery of glucose to the cells and the burning of stored
fat for energy are impaired.
Increasing insulin sensitivity results in less of the hormone being
secreted. This may help in fat loss efforts in several ways. When fat
cells reach their maximum capacity, insulin tells the body to produce more
fat cells. When a new fat cell is made, the brain sends signals to eat so
that the fat cell can be filled (with fat). This process, with too much
insulin produced, promotes fat gain. Once fat cells are manufactured, they
can shrink (during weight loss), but they generally do not disappear.
There is hope, however, from animal studies that suggest that fat cells
may be destroyed. A 1998 study showed this by treating animals with
antibodies after a high fat diet that resulted in a 50% increase in body
weight3. These results imply, however, that the destruction of fat cells
may only be likely in extreme cases of obesity. For the general population
with extra body fat, getting rid of fat cells once they are formed may be
more difficult or impossible. For everyone, preventing the manufacture of
fat cells may be critical to avoiding excess body fat. Improving insulin
sensitivity may be one mechanism to help prevent the production of fat
Another body mechanism related to body fat accumulation has to do with the
brain chemicals responsible for appetite. Altering the metabolism of
several neurotransmitters, including serotonin, may enhance weight loss.
Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that transmit information from
one nerve cell to another. Serotonin is responsible for mood-elevation and
low levels may be responsible for depression. In terms of appetite, low
levels of serotonin may result in cravings for sweets and
high-carbohydrate foods, both contributing to fat gain.
Why is it easy for some people to get lean while it is not for others?
In addition to differences in thermogenesis, the sympathetic nervous
system, brain functioning, and hormones, metabolism is an important
factor. It is common knowledge that people have different metabolisms,
some people stay lean no matter how much they eat while others must
carefully watch what they eat. There are several factors that contribute
to metabolisms varying from person to person. One of these is age. As we
get older our metabolic rate slows down. Gender is also an important
factor. Men have a higher resting metabolic rate than women do, so men
usually need more calories to maintain their body weight. In addition, a
woman's metabolic rate decreases significantly after menopause. Genetics
is another factor related to metabolism and obesity. But not all aspects
of varying metabolisms are out of our control. Activity level also plays a
role in metabolism. Activity can help enhance metabolism in addition to
maintaining weight. Besides the many other benefits of exercise, activity
tends to reduce appetite while increasing the body's ability to metabolize
fat as an energy source. In addition to exercise, there are other ways to
help change a poor metabolism.
Luckily, the factors contributing to excess fat and weight gain are
becoming increasingly controllable. As more scientific advances are being
made, along with a growing need for weight loss solutions, one can improve
their body's mechanism to promote fat loss. Although some people may have
been dealt a poor hand in relation to thermogenesis, the sympathetic
nervous system, metabolism, brain functioning, and hormones, these
functions may be improved with new formulas for fat loss. These compounds
help to regulate and improve the processes that may be malfunctioning in
people with excess body fat. The latest ingredients, which appear to have
some real promise for helping to control our waistlines, include
norephedrine, caffeine, yohimbine, chromium picolinate,
phosphatidylcholine, calcium phosphate, potassium phosphate, sodium
phosphate, gum guggul, garcinia cambogia, and l-tyrosine.

A Closer Look at the Some Advanced Weight Loss Compounds
Norephedrine (PPA)

This thermogenic compound increases metabolic rate and diet-induced
thermogenesis by activating the sympathetic nervous system. One of the
things that make thermogenic ingredients like this so great is their
ability to promote fat breakdown without eating away at your muscle.
L-norephedrine (l-phenylpropanolamine or PPA) is a stimulant and appetite
suppressant. It is a chemical cousin to amphetamine and ephedrine, and
acts on the region of the brain that controls appetite (the hypothalamus).
PPA is classified as a sympathomimetic (adrenergic) agent, which means
that it mimics the effect of stimulating the organs and structures of the
central nervous system. Of the two norephedrine enantiomers, (same
chemical formulas, mirror images) d-norephedrine and l-norephedrine, the
latter (l-norephedrine or 1r, 2s norephedrine) appears to be a more potent
appetite suppressant4.
Animal models have been used to determine the effects of PPA on appetite
and weight loss. In rats, PPA has been reported to decrease eating and
drinking in a dose-dependent response, suggesting an effect on eating
behavior5. Also in rats, PPA has been shown to lower body weight and
caloric intake6.
In humans, the effects of PPA have been well researched. PPA appears to
induce a variety of effects including loss of appetite and weight loss. In
overweight men and women, PPA has been associated with significant weight
loss 6 weeks into a 14-week study7. In this study, PPA was a better
appetite suppressant when compared with placebo. Additionally, the average
weight loss observed in the people taking PPA was approximately 2-3 times
higher than in those not taking PPA. Weight loss has also been shown to
increase without adverse side effects in overweight men and women given
PPA along with a reduced caloric intake8. This suggests that PPA may work
best when in conjunction with a reduced calorie diet in overweight
There is evidence that PPA and caffeine enhance each other's effects on
thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue9. This type of tissue is where the
incineration of fat takes place. When thermogenesis is increased in brown
adipose tissue, more calories from fat are burned and fat is stopped from
being stored. In this study, using rats, the effects of PPA and caffeine
were greater than PPA alone. In summary, this combination increases the
burning of stored fat and helps prevent fats from food from being stored
as fat. In adults with more than 20% body fat, the PPA-caffeine
combination was as effective as prescriptive anti-obesity drugs at
achieving weight-loss with fewer side effects10.


Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant that has been shown to
enhance weight loss efforts. It appears that caffeine consumption may
benefit fat loss, especially when combined with the thermogenic effects of
norephedrine. These two supplements in combination appear to promote fat
breakdown rather than the loss of muscle mass.
The effects of caffeine on body fat were first examined using an animal
model more than 15 years ago. One of these studies found that, in rats,
caffeine consumption could increase fat loss with aerobic exercise when it
is ingested prior to training11. Caffeine given before exercise resulted
in a 22% reduction in body weight and a 25% reduction in fat-cell size in
comparison to rats not fed caffeine.
Another animal study found that rats consuming Coca-Cola and food at free
will increased their total energy intake by 50% without excess weight
gain12. In this study, caffeine significantly decreased the rate of weight
gain, fat-storing tissue weight, and fat-cell size. In addition, caffeine
inhibited the growth of fat cells in the fat-storing tissue. These effects
mimic those of exercise training and food restriction13. Thus, moderate
caffeine intake might be useful for stopping the growth activity in tissue
that stores fat, thereby preventing excess body fat.
Human studies have also supported the benefits of caffeine on weight loss.
In both lean and previously overweight individuals, 100mg caffeine has
been shown to increase resting metabolic rate by 3-4%14. Caffeine also
improved the defective thermogenesis resulting from dieting in the
post-obese subjects. Repeated caffeine doses given every 2 hours for 12
hours increased energy expenditure by 8-11% in both groups of people. The
researchers concluded from these results that caffeine at common doses can
have a significant influence on energy balance and may promote
Basal metabolic rate is the rate of metabolism measured 12 hours after a
meal, after a restful sleep, no exercise or activity before testing, no
emotional excitement, and in a comfortable temperature. A recent study
investigated whether there are any differences in basal metabolic rate and
thermogenic response to caffeine in obese women and if these variations
might affect weight loss15. These overweight women were following a low
calorie diet and an exercise regimen. After two months, the women had
significantly reduced their weight and body fat. Body weight loss was
highest in women who had the lowest basal metabolic rates. Therefore,
caffeine may promote weight and body fat loss in overweight women and may
be correlated with basal metabolic rate and thermogenic response.
Because intense dieting can often result in the temporary occurrence of an
abnormally low metabolic rate (which is why many intense diets simply stop
working), caffeine can be very useful in helping to maintain normal BMR
over an extended diet.
Similarly, caffeine has been shown to raise metabolism in normal weight
and overweight people16. The people of normal weight also experienced an
increase in fat oxidation. During this study, the researchers observed a
greater thermogenic effect after a meal when coffee was consumed when
compared to decaffeinated coffee.
As we age, metabolism declines and thermogenic response, specifically to
glucose, may also weaken. To further examine the effect of aging on
thermogenesis and metabolism, researchers studied the effects of caffeine
in non-obese men and women in two age groups17. One age group was 18 to 29
years, while the other was 66 to 80 years. These people were given either
a fructose or glucose solution, with or without caffeine. While there
wasn't a difference in calories burned in either young or old, an increase
in caffeine levels resulted in higher energy expenditure in both groups.
Another study investigated caffeine's effects on thermogenesis,
metabolism, and cardiovascular factors in healthy people18. Using doses of
100, 200, and 400mg of caffeine, energy expenditure and thermogenic
response were elevated. As previously described, caffeine along with
norephedrine appear to be more effective together than alone at increasing
fat-burning and preventing fat from being stored.


Yohimbine is a plant substance derived mainly from the bark of the African
tree, Pausinystalia yohimbe. Yohimbine is the active constituent in
yohimbe, although similar alkaloids may also have a role. Yohimbine blocks
alpha-2 adrenergic receptors (alpha-adrenoreceptor), part of the
sympathetic nervous system19. When alpha-2 receptors are activated, an
anti-fat-burning effect occurs. By thwarting these receptors, yohimbine
initiates the breakdown of fat.
Yohimbine also increases the diameters of blood vessels. This has made the
compound a useful substance for treating male sexual dysfunction without
negative cardiovascular side effects. It is important to note that foods
with high amounts of the chemical tyramine (such as aged cheese, red wine,
beer, and canned meats) should not be eaten while a person is taking
yohimbine, as it may cause severe high blood pressure and other problems.
Administration of yohimbine has been demonstrated to reduce food intake in
animals20. While the other alpha 2-antagonists used in the study reduced
appetite for 2 hours, yohimbine's effects lasted 20 hours.
Researchers have examined the regulation of lipolysis (breakdown of fat)
in obese and lean women21. In both groups of women, alpha-adrenergic
blockade by yohimbine increased calorie burning during exercise as well as
fat breakdown. Also in obese women, the effects of yohimbine have been
shown to increase weight loss in combination with a low-calorie diet22.
Another human study that investigated yohimbine's effects found that the
extract promoted a lasting period of stored fat breakdown and thermogenic
abilities23. In this study, yohimbine did not show negative cardiovascular
or insulin effects.
Compared to other alpha-2 receptor blockers, yohimbine appears to be the
most effective for promoting fat loss. A study investigating the
interactions of these blockers with human fat cell receptors found that
all the blockers enhanced fat breakdown, with yohimbine found to be the
most potent agent24. Thus, yohimbine displayed fat-mobilizing activity,
meaning that it helped burn stored fat, without effecting heart rate or
blood pressure.

Chromium Picolinate

Chromium picolinate is a compound of chromium and picolinic acid. Chromium
is a trace mineral that is involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates and
fats and is used in the production of insulin in the body. Picolinate
(picolinic acid) is a naturally occurring amino acid derivative. Chromium
appears to be best absorbed by the body when it is taken as chromium
The average American diet does not include adequate amounts of chromium.
The estimated safe and adequate daily dietary intake for chromium is 50 to
200 micrograms. However, most diets contain less than 60% of the minimum
suggested intake of 50 micrograms25. Inadequate dietary intake of chromium
leads to signs and symptoms that are similar to those observed for
diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. It has been estimated that 90% of
the population is chromium deficient. This could be mainly due to the
predominance of diets high in sugar. These diets are known to increase the
excretion of chromium from the body. Since overweight individuals may
consume large amounts of sugar, the more sugar consumed, the more chromium
is needed. These people may benefit from chromium, especially since their
levels have been depleted.
Chromium promotes the activity of insulin and is a critical component of
normal glucose metabolism. Because it is involved in the breakdown of
glucose, chromium is needed for energy and is therefore important to
normal body function and health. By increasing the ability of body cells
to use insulin, appetite control, thermogenesis, and muscle mass creation
can be improved. Chromium's stimulation of insulin helps to metabolize
glucose and fat, aiding in weight loss. As previously mentioned, a factor
contributing to decreased thermogenesis in overweight people is insulin
insensitivity26. Since chromium helps to increase insulin sensitivity,
chromium may help improve an overweight person's ability to burn fat.
Reviewing studies that evaluate the effects of chromium on weight loss and
body composition, it appears that chromium may provide the best results
with long-term use and when combined with other healthy weight loss
Chromium supplements have been reported to have beneficial effects on
glucose, insulin, and cholesterol in people with type-II diabetes28.
Chromium also improves the glucose/insulin system in subjects with
hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, diabetes and high cholesterol29. Glucose
(blood sugar) is the fuel the cells of the body use for energy and is
necessary for the body to run properly. The body secretes insulin from the
pancreas in response to the rise in blood sugar that occurs after eating.
Insulin lowers blood sugar, which then results in the release of glucagon.
Glucagon stimulates the release of glycogen, the storage form of glucose
in the body tissues.
Problems in this system of controlling blood sugar levels occur as a
result of poor diet and lifestyle. These factors commonly lead to diabetes
and hypoglycemia. Some people have insufficient levels of insulin in their
bodies that may lead to hypoglycemia (abnormally low concentrations of
glucose in the blood). An insulin deficiency prevents glucose from being
delivered to certain cells, which then lack energy to function properly.
The result is elevated blood glucose, loss of muscle mass, weakness and
fatigue. Another problem that can occur during the glucose/insulin system
of energy production is hyperglycemia. With this condition there is too
high a level of glucose in the blood, a sign that diabetes is out of
control. This occurs when the body does not have enough insulin or cannot
use the insulin it does have to turn glucose into energy.
In non-diabetic people with obesity, the effects of chromium picolinate on
lean body mass during and after weight reduction were tested30. During
this study, the obese patients were on a low-calorie diet for 8 weeks,
followed by an 18-week maintenance period. Throughout the whole 26 weeks,
the patients received either placebo or chromium yeast (200
micrograms/day) or chromium picolinate (200 micrograms/day). As a result,
all three groups showed comparable weight loss after 8 and 26 weeks and
lean body mass reduction after 8 weeks. However, after 26 weeks, those
given chromium picolinate experienced increased lean body mass whereas the
other treatment groups still had reduced lean body mass. Therefore,
chromium picolinate is able to increase lean body mass in obese patients
in the maintenance period after a low-calorie diet without counteracting
the weight loss achieved.
Nutritional components such as chromium can benefit the process of
maintaining blood sugar levels and producing energy. Chromium is critical
to proper insulin action, including blood sugar control and weight loss.
Inadequate levels of chromium in the body can lead to glucose intolerance,
which results in elevated blood sugar and insulin levels, and may lead to
fat gain.


Phosphatidylcholine, also known as lecithin, is a nutrient found naturally
in eggs and soybeans. Besides acting as a protector of our body's cells,
especially those in the nervous system, phosphatidylcholine is the main
source of choline. Choline is essential to the formation of acetylcholine,
one of the body's most important neurotransmitters. Since acetylcholine is
a key signal carrier involved in memory, phosphatidyl choline has been
reported to improve memory31.
Along with promoting proper functioning of the nervous system, choline is
needed to metabolize fats and help the liver function normally. Without
choline, fats get trapped in the liver and block metabolism. For these
reasons, choline has been touted by scientists as an essential nutrient32.
Using an animal model, researchers have shown that lecithin may help
prevent the development of atherosclerosis (the clogging of the
arteries)33. In monkeys, the combination of the American Heart Association
Group diet and lecithin resulted in 46% lower total cholesterol and 55%
lower non-HDL-cholesterol compared to the average American diet34. The
American Heart Association alone resulted in lesser reductions 21% lower
total cholesterol and 18% non-HDL-cholesterol. It appears that
phospatidylcholine (lecithin) helps lower cholesterol levels by removing
cholesterol from tissue deposits and stopping the clumping of platelets,
which lead to cholesterol build-up35.
Research has also shown the importance of phospatidylcholine in relation
to fat in the body. Animal research has shown that choline is extremely
important in the absorption of fat. In animals, choline deficiency results
in an impaired release of fats, resulting in an accumulation of fat36.

Calcium Phosphate

Calcium has been widely proven to be an important nutritional factor in
maintaining and promoting bone-health. Calcium is the most abundant
mineral in the body and is required in large amounts in order to build
strong teeth and bones. The bones and teeth account for about 99% of the
total body stores.
Another plentiful and crucial mineral in the body is phosphorus.
Approximately 80% of the phosphorous in the body is found in the calcium
phosphate salts, which make up the inorganic substance of bone. The
calcium phosphate salts of bone give them rigidity but also store
phosphate. In the other parts of the body, phosphate functions as a key
player in metabolism and energy production.
Due to the significant bone loss that occurs after menopause,
postmenopausal women have been the focus of vast research. Daily calcium
supplementation has been shown to decrease markers of bone degradation as
early as one month after beginning supplementation in postmenopausal
women37. These results suggest that the bone loss that occurs in aging may
be slowed with calcium supplementation.
People undergoing fat loss may be especially prone to bone loss and
research suggests that these people maintain an adequate intake of mineral
required for healthy bones. Bone loss, lowering of bone density, and
fractures due to osteoporosis have been reported in postmenopausal women
who have experienced weight loss. When postmenopausal women on a
reduced-calorie diet were given calcium supplements (1000m g/day) for 6
months, their loss of bone density was lower after weight loss compared
with women who had not received calcium38.
The effects of weight loss with and without adequate calcium intake on
bone loss and density have been examined in animals. There has been data
that indicates that low intake of calcium or energy results in an elevated
rate of bone loss39. These results suggest that there is a detrimental
effect of low-energy diets, as well as inadequate calcium intake, on bone
Post-menopausal women may not be the only people who need to watch their
calcium intakes during weight loss. In mildly overweight women, 6 months
of modest dietary restriction resulted in a loss of bone density in
addition to reduced body weight40. These bone losses could be a threat to
bone health and support the importance of maintaining a high calcium
intake during dieting. There is also evidence that men undergoing
weight-loss are susceptible to reduced bone mass. A population-based study
determining the factors associated with hip fracture risk in white men
found that weight loss and bone-density were significantly related to hip
Exercise may also contribute to bone loss. A study published in the
Journal of the American Medical Association examined the bone mineral
content in young male athletes42. Over a two-year period, the researchers
observed a loss of calcium during training in members of a college
Division I basketball team. From the start of training to almost a year
later, there was a decrease of 6.1% in total bone mineral content and a
10.5% decrease in bone mineral content in the legs. When the athletes were
given calcium supplements prior to the start of the next season, there was
a significant increase in bone mineral content and lean body mass.

Potassium Phosphate & Sodium Phosphate

Potassium is a mineral needed to regulate water balance, levels of
acidity, blood pressure, and neuromuscular function. Potassium is also
required for carbohydrate and protein metabolism. This important body
mineral is involved in cellular and electrical function. Along with sodium
and chloride, it is one of the main minerals in the body that is an
electrolyte, which means that it carries a tiny electrical charge.
Potassium's role in energy expenditure has been studied in obese and lean
healthy, postmenopausal women43. The women in this study received orange
juice with or without a mineral supplement containing magnesium and
potassium phosphate. When the minerals were added, the number of calories
burned increased significantly in the obese group within a maximum of
thirty minutes. These effects were not seen in the lean women. Therefore,
potassium/magnesium-phosphate supplementation may increase thermogenesis
in overweight women.
The effects of potassium, calcium, and sodium phosphates on metabolism
during weight loss were investigated in overweight women44. These women
were in an 8-week weight loss program consisting of a low-energy diet
supplemented with mineral tablets containing calcium, potassium and sodium
phosphates. During periods of phosphate supplementation, the resting
metabolic rate increased. The researchers concluded that phosphate
supplementation in overweight patients on a low-energy diet enhances
resting metabolism regardless of the rate of weight loss. Another study
with obese women included a 4-week weight loss program. This study found
that phosphate supplementation caused a significant increase in resting
metabolic rate45. Therefore, potassium and sodium phosphate may help
promote weight loss by raising metabolism.

Gum Guggul

Guggulipid is an extract from the Indian gum called guggul. This gum is
derived from the mukul myrrh tree, which is native to India. The active
components of guggulipid are two compounds termed Z-guggulsterone and
Several studies have reported guggulipid's ability to lower cholesterol
and triglyceride levels. In people with high cholesterol levels,
guggulipid decreased total cholesterol level by 11.7% and the low-density
lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) by 12.5%46. In addition, indicators of
oxidative stress declined 33.3% with guggulipid. The researchers noted
that the combined effect of diet and guggulipid after 36 weeks was as
great as the reported lipid-lowering effect of modern drugs. Since
cholesterol and excess body fat are closely related, the effects of
guggulipid may be especially beneficial to people with body fat
accumulation who are undergoing fat loss.
Further research conducted on the use of a combination of guggulipid and
phosphate salts in obese subjects47 found that an increase in weight loss
and energy was observed in the supplemented group. The researchers
postulated that the increase in weight loss and concurrent maintenance of
energy related to an increase in thyroid levels. A further, and perhaps
more definitive indication that guggul has a beneficial impact on thyroid
hormone levels during dieting relates to the well known fact that a
substantial decrease in cholesterol can be readily attributed to an
increase in thyroid levels. Although the precise mechanism by which guggul
increases thyroid levels remains to be elucidated, it is clear that the
addition of guggulsterones improves tolerance to intense dieting and
concurrently exerts a positive influence on metabolism as measured by an
increase in loss of fat mass when compared to controls.

Garcinia Cambogia

Garcinia cambogia is a small fruit used in southern India to flavor and
preserve food, and help digestion. The active ingredient of the herbal
compound Garcinia cambogia is hydroxycitric acid (HCA), or hydroxycitrate.
Garcinia cambogia contains the highest concentration of hydroxycitrate.
Hydroxycitrate is a natural fruit acid that inhibits the creation of fat
cells48. This compound also prevents the inhibition of fat breakdown in
the liver, giving it considerable potential as a new weight-loss
Research has shown that HCA reduces the production of stored fat from
carbohydrates by inhibiting the enzymes involved50. The enzyme stopped by
HCA is adenosine 5(-triphosphate citrate lyase (or ATP citrate lyase).
This enzyme is essential in the production of fat. By inhibiting ATP
citrate lyase, Garcinia cambogia may help to stop fat from being formed.
In addition to preventing the conversion of carbohydrates to fat, this
fruit acid may also help to suppress appetite. In animal studies, daily
hydroxycitrate has been shown to significantly reduced food intake51.
Another animal study examined the effects of hydroxycitrate on the
development of obesity. When lean and obese rats were fed hydroxycitrate
for 39 days, the lean rats experienced a decreased body weight, food
intake, percent body fat, and fat cell size52. In the obese rats, body
weight, food intake and fat cell number were reduced during the treatment.
Garcinia cambogia may also improve athletic endurance. During aerobic
exercise, glucose requirements by the active muscles are increased.
Without adequate glucose production, exhaustion results. Hydroxycitrate
may improve endurance during aerobic exercise by promoting the manufacture
of glucose53. Chromium may enhance the benefits of Garcinia cambogia
extract on aerobic endurance. Researchers add that these benefits may be
the greatest in exercise programs designed to promote weight loss.


L-Tyrosine is the natural form of the amino acid tyrosine. Amino acids are
building blocks of protein and l-tyrosine is directly coded into proteins.
Tyrosine can be made from another amino acid, phenylalanine. Phenylalanine
and tyrosine together lead to the formation of thyroid hormone, adrenaline
and noradrenaline. Adrenaline is a hormone that encourages the breakdown
of stored fat. Noradrenaline is a neurotransmitter (a brain chemical that
sends signals) that promotes mental alertness, memory, elevates mood and
suppresses the appetite.
The body also uses l-tyrosine to make serotonin and dopamine, chemicals
that help to make people feel full and discourage eating. Serotonin is a
substance within the bloodstream that is produced by the brain. The amount
of serotonin released in the brain depends on what food we eat.
Carbohydrates, for example, promote the production of serotonin. The
mechanism controlling this activity helps to keep carbohydrate and protein
intake more or less constant. Because serotonin release is also involved
in sleep onset, pain sensitivity, blood pressure regulation, and control
of mood, many people learn to overeat carbohydrates (especially snack
foods, like potato chips or pastries, which are rich in carbohydrates and
fats) to make themselves feel better54. As a result, this habit frequently
causes weight gain. Compounds that increase the availability of serotonin,
such as l-tyrosine, may result in a feeling of satisfaction and reduce the
likelihood of the over-consumption of foods high in fats and/or
Some diet pills and anti-obesity prescription drugs, all synthetic, also
enhance serotonin's availability. However, many of these drugs have very
serious side effects, including development of abnormalities in the valves
of the heart. As a result, the majority of these drugs have been removed
from the market.
Because l-tyrosine is a component of normal food protein, it is a safe
substance. Adrenaline and noradrenaline are produced from l-tyrosine,
chemicals that may increase blood pressure or have potential to induce
negative cardiovascular effects. However, how much adrenaline and
noradrenaline are produced from l-tyrosine depends on what is required. If
there is an abundance of l-tyrosine, there is a mechanism that reduces the
production of adrenaline and noradrenaline.
It appears that the effects of the hunger-decreasing compound norephedrine
(PPA, or l-phenylpropanolamine) can be enhanced with l-tyrosine
administration. Using an animal model, l-tyrosine helped amplify the
appetite-suppressing activity of PPA by 48%56. This amino acid may be a
safe and effective supplement to many fat-loss promoting treatments.
Putting it all together and making it work for you
Ideally, a formula to enhance fat loss contains compounds that promote the
functioning of body mechanisms involved in the production of energy,
burning of fat, and suppressing the desire to overeat. These described
compounds work together to promote several aspects of fat loss and help to
maintain the health of body structures and functions that may be altered
with weight loss.
Thermogenic formulas containing norephedrine, caffeine, and yohimbine can
increase metabolic rate and diet-induced thermogenesis by activating the
sympathetic nervous system. This combination of compounds helps to promote
fat breakdown, suppress appetite and prevent food from being stored as fat
in the body. Chromium picolinate enhances the ability of body cells to use
insulin, aids in controlling appetite, increases thermogenesis, helps the
body burn fat, and improves muscle mass creation. The fruit acid of
Garcinia cambogia has been reported to improve fat breakdown, endurance,
and suppress appetite. The amino acid l-tyrosine helps the body make
serotonin and dopamine, chemicals that produce feelings of hunger
In order to maintain total body health, other factors besides those
affecting fat loss must not be forgotten. Phosphatidylcholine supports the
metabolism of fats, the functioning of the nervous system, and lowers
cholesterol. Gum guggul has also been shown to lower cholesterol,
improving cardiovascular health, as well as support thyroid levels. Since
bone loss has been shown to correlate with weight loss, an adequate intake
of minerals required for healthy bones should be maintained. These
important minerals include calcium and phosphate. Together, phosphates
such as calcium, potassium, and sodium help to improve metabolism and
promote weight loss.
Whatever your fat loss goals are, it is important to remember that your
body needs adequate nutritional support to achieve them. By giving your
body what it needs - it can then give you what you want: a new, leaner you!

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