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Am J Human Biol 1999;11(2):209-224 Related Articles, Links
Hormonal changes during puberty and their relationship to fat distribution.
Roemmich JN, Rogol AD.
University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Department of Pediatrics, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908.
In adults, abdominal visceral adiposity is related to an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, and stroke. The antecedents of these conditions likely begin with the alterations in body fat distribution during childhood and adolescence. The sexually dimorphic alterations in fat distribution are influenced by sex differences in hormone concentrations, anatomical differences in the number and density of specific hormone receptors, capillary blood flow, and the activity of enzymes promoting lipid synthesis or degradation. Hormones influencing the amount and regional distribution of adipose tissue during puberty include cortisol, insulin, growth hormone, and the sex steroids. Cortisol and insulin promote fat deposition while the sex steroids and GH stimulate lipolysis. An overly sensitive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may exist in obesity and disrupt the balance between the lipogenic effects of cortisol and insulin and the lipolytic effects of sex steroids and growth hormone. Leptin is released from the adipocytes and may act as a metabolic signal to the hypothalamic areas controlling satiety, energy expenditure, and the regulation of cortisol, insulin, sex steroid and growth hormone release. The complex issues of the hormonal control of alterations in body fat distribution during puberty are developed and a working model is proposed. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 11:209-224, 1999. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Metabolism 1997 Feb;46(2):179-85 Related Articles, Links
Evidence for sex steroid inhibition of lipoprotein lipase in men: comparison of abdominal and femoral adipose tissue.
Ramirez ME, McMurry MP, Wiebke GA, Felten KJ, Ren K, Meikle AW, Iverius PH.
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, USA.
Plasma estradiol has been suggested to suppress adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in women. The present study explores the regulation of LPL by sex steroids in sedentary obese men (N = 24) at their usual weight. Femoral adipose tissue LPL activity, eluted with serum and heparin or extracted with detergent, showed significant inverse correlations with plasma levels of testosterone, bioavailable testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol. Both measures of femoral LPL activity were also correlated with the weight change occurring despite efforts to maintain a constant weight. Abdominal LPL activity showed significant but weaker inverse correlations with bioavailable testosterone only. Multivariate analysis of potential predictors for eluted femoral LPL activity showed that plasma testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol were interdependent, whereas the rate of weight change was an independent variable. In the regression equation, only bioavailable testosterone and weight change were retained, explaining 63% of the variability (R = .79, P = .0002).These results suggest that sex steroids suppress adipose tissue LPL activity in men, and more so in the thigh than in the abdomen, thereby possibly contributing to a central fat accumulation. The data are compatible with a model from male animals suggesting that testosterone effects on adipose tissue LPL are mediated by estradiol formed locally.
Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1996 Apr;20(4):291-302 Related Articles, Links
The regulation of adipose tissue distribution in humans.
Department of Heart and Lung Disease, Sahlgren's Hospital, University of Goteborg, Sweden.
The regulation of adipose tissue distribution is an important problem in view of the close epidemiological and metabolic associations between centralized fat accumulation and disease. With visceral fat accumulation multiple endocrine perturbations are found, including elevated cortisol and androgens in women, as well as low growth hormone (GH) and, in men, testosterone (T) secretion. These abnormalities probably derive from a hypersensitive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, with hyperinsulinemia related to a marked insulin resistance as a consequence. These hormonal changes exert profound effects on adipose tissue metabolism and distribution. At the adipocyte level cortisol and insulin promote lipid accumulation by expressing lipoprotein lipase activity, while T, GH and probably estrogens exert opposite effects. The consequences will most likely be more expressed in visceral than subcutaneous adipose tissues because of a higher cellularity, innervation and blood flow.
...the functional effects of estrogens in women are similar to those of T in men. The mechanisms are, however, probably indirect because of the apparent absence of specific estrogen and progesterone receptors in human adipose tissue. This interpretation from the studies referred to above fits well with physiological, and clinical conditions with increased visceral fat mass, where the balance between the lipid accumulating hormone couple (cortisol and insulin) and the hormones which prevent lipid accumulation and instead activate lipid mobilization pathways (sex steroid hormones and GH) is shifted to the advantage of the former...