Glutamine: The ESSENTIAL amino acid


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Glutamine is a very underestimated weapon in the bodybuilding repertoire.Even while in an enhanced A/S state of metabolic favoribility,IMMUNE SYSTEM response and reaction to the trauma we are inflicting upon ourselves in the gym is an often overlooked impediment in our road to physical self-greatness.Glutamine is a multi-functional ergonic aid.It not only greatly improves immune response/recovery reaction to trauma,but it improves liver function and serves as a very potent cell volumizer,perhaps second only to creatine monohydrate in this regard as a non-drug osmotic enhancer.The following is an abstract which goes into further detail of this tremendous augmentory amino acid.It would be a wise idea to include it in your future bodybuilding arsenal if not already doing so.---Huck

Glutamine: effects on the immune system, protein balance and intestinal functions]
Roth E, Spittler A, Oehler R
Wien Klin Wochenschr 1996 108:669-76

Glutamine is the most abundant free amino acid of the human body. In catabolic stress situations such as after operations, trauma and during sepsis the enhanced transport of glutamine to splanchnic organs and to blood cells results in an intracellular depletion of glutamine in skeletal muscle. Glutamine is an important metabolic substrate for cells cultivated under in vitro conditions and is a precursor for purines, pyrimidines and phospholipids. Increasing evidence suggests that glutamine is a crucial substrate for immunocompetent cells. Glutamine depletion in the cultivation medium decreases the mitogen-inducible proliferation of lymphocytes, possibly by arresting the cells in the G0-G1 phase of the cell cycle. Glutamine depletion in lymphocytes prevents the formation of signals necessary for late activation. In monocytes glutamine deprivation downregulates surface antigens responsible for antigen preservation and phagocytosis. Glutamine is a precursor for the synthesis of glutathionine and stimulates the formation of heat-shock proteins. Moreover, there are suggestions that glutamine plays a crucial role in osmotic regulation of cell volume and causes phosphorylation of proteins, both of which may stimulate intracellular protein synthesis. Experimental studies revealed that glutamine deficiency causes a necrotising enterocolitis and increases the mortality of animals subjected to bacterial stress. First clinical studies have demonstrated a decrease in the incidence of infections and a shortening of the hospital stay in patients after bone marrow transplantation by supplementation with glutamine. In critically ill patients parenteral glutamine reduced nitrogen loss and caused a reduction of the mortality rate. In surgical patients glutamine evoked an improvement of several immunological parameters. Moreover, glutamine exerted a trophic effect on the intestinal mucosa, decreased the intestinal permeability and thus may prevent the translocation of bacteria. In conclusion, glutamine is an important metabolic substrate of rapidly proliferating cells, influences the cellular hydration state and has multiple effects on the immune system, on intestinal function and on protein metabolism. In several disease states glutamine may consequently, become an indispensable nutrient, which should be provided exogenously during artificial nutrition.
A few reasons why you shouldn't waste your $ on glutamine:

Effect of glutamine supplementation combined with resistance training in young adults.

Candow DG, Chilibeck PD, Burke DG, Davison KS, Smith-Palmer T.

College of Kinesiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada.

The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of oral glutamine supplementation combined with resistance training in young adults. A group of 31 subjects, aged 18-24 years, were randomly allocated to groups (double blind) to receive either glutamine (0.9 g x kg lean tissue mass(-1) x day(-1); n = 17) or a placebo (0.9 g maltodextrin x kg lean tissue mass(-1) x day(-1); n = 14 during 6 weeks of total body resistance training. Exercises were performed for four to five sets of 6-12 repetitions at intensities ranging from 60% to 90% 1 repetition maximum (1 RM). Before and after training, measurements were taken of 1 RM squat and bench press strength, peak knee extension torque (using an isokinetic dynamometer), lean tissue mass (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry) and muscle protein degradation (urinary 3-methylhistidine by high performance liquid chromatography). Repeated measures ANOVA showed that strength, torque, lean tissue mass and 3-methylhistidine increased with training (P < 0.05), with no significant difference between groups. Both groups increased their 1 RM squat by approximately 30% and 1 RM bench press by approximately 14%. The glutamine group showed increases of 6% for knee extension torque, 2% for lean tissue mass and 41% for urinary levels of 3-methylhistidine. The placebo group increased knee extension torque by 5%, lean tissue mass by 1.7% and 3-methylhistidine by 56%. We conclude that glutamine supplementation during resistance training has no significant effect on muscle performance, body composition or muscle protein degradation in young healthy adults.


J Strength Cond Res 2002 Feb;16(1):157-60
The effects of high-dose glutamine ingestion on weightlifting performance

Antonio J, Sanders MS, Kalman D, Woodgate D, Street C.

Sports Science Laboratory, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716, USA.

The purpose of this study was to determine if high-dose glutamine ingestion affected weightlifting performance. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 6 resistance-trained men (mean +/- SE: age, 21.5 +/- 0.3 years; weight, 76.5 +/- 2.8 kg(-1)) performed weightlifting exercises after the ingestion of glutamine or glycine (0.3 g x kg(-1)) mixed with calorie-free fruit juice or placebo (calorie-free fruit juice only). Each subject underwent each of the 3 treatments in a randomized order. One hour after ingestion, subjects performed 4 total sets of exercise to momentary muscular failure (2 sets of leg presses at 200% of body weight, 2 sets of bench presses at 100% of body weight). There were no differences in the average number of maximal repetitions performed in the leg press or bench press exercises among the 3 groups. These data indicate that the short-term ingestion of glutamine does not enhance weightlifting performance in resistance-trained men.


Int J Sports Med 2000 Jan;21(1):25-30 Related Articles, Links

The effect of free glutamine and peptide ingestion on the rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis in man.

van Hall G, Saris WH, van de Schoor PA, Wagenmakers AJ.

Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands. RH01769@RH.DK

The present study investigated previous claims that ingestion of glutamine and of protein-carbohydrate mixtures may increase the rate of glycogen resynthesis following intense exercise. Eight trained subjects were studied during 3 h of recovery while consuming one of four drinks in random order. Drinks were ingested in three 500 ml boluses, immediately after exercise and then after 1 and 2 h of recovery. Each bolus of the control drink contained 0.8 g x kg(-1) body weight of glucose. The other drinks contained the same amount of glucose and 0.3 g x kg(-1) body weight of 1) glutamine, 2) a wheat hydrolysate (26% glutamine) and 3) a whey hydrolysate (6.6% glutamine). Plasma glutamine, decreased by approximately 20% during recovery with ingestion of the control drink, no changes with ingestion of the protein hydrolysates drinks, and a 2-fold increase with ingestion of the free glutamine drinks. The rate of glycogen resynthesis was not significantly different in the four tests: 28 +/- 5, 26 +/- 6, 33 +/- 4, and 34 +/- 3 mmol glucosyl units x kg(-1) dry weight muscle x h(-1) for the control, glutamine, wheat- and whey hydrolysate ingestion, respectively. It is concluded that ingestion of a glutamine/carbohydrate mixture does not increase the rate of glycogen resynthesis in muscle. Glycogen resynthesis rates were higher, although not statistically significant, after ingestion of the drink containing the wheat (21 +/- 8%) and whey protein hydrolysate (20 +/- 6%) compared to ingestion of the control and free glutamine drinks, implying that further research is needed on the potential protein effect.


Metabolism 2000 Dec;49(12):1555-60 Related Articles, Links

Intravenous glutamine does not stimulate mixed muscle protein synthesis in healthy young men and women.

Zachwieja JJ, Witt TL, Yarasheski KE.

Exercise and Nutrition Program, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.

We investigated the effects of a glutamine-supplemented amino acid mixture on vastus lateralis muscle protein synthesis rate in healthy young men and women. Three men and 3 women (27.8 +/- 2.0 yr, 22.2 +/- 1.0 body mass index [BMI], 56.1 +/- 4.5 kg lean body mass [LBM]) received a 14-hour primed, constant intravenous infusion of L[1-13C]leucine to evaluate the fractional rate of mixed muscle protein synthesis. In addition to tracer administration, a clinically relevant amino acid mixture supplemented with either glutamine or glycine in amounts isonitrogenous to glutamine, was infused. Amino acid mixtures were infused on separate occasions in random order at a rate of 0.04 g/kg/h (glutamine at approximately 0.01 g/kg/h) with at least 2 weeks between treatment. For 2 days before and on the day of an infusion, dietary intake was controlled so that each subject received 1.5 g protein/kg/d. Compared with our previous report in the postabsorptive state, amino acid infusion increased the fractional rate of mixed muscle protein synthesis by 48% (P < .05); however, the addition of glutamine to the amino acid mixture did not further elevate muscle protein synthesis rate (ie, 0.071% +/- 0.008%/h for amino acids + glutamine v 0.060% +/- 0.008%/h for amino acids + glycine; P = .316). Plasma glutamine concentrations were higher (P < .05) during the glutamine-supplemented infusion, but free intramuscular glutamine levels were not increased (P = .363). Both plasma and free intramuscular glycine levels were increased when extra glycine was included in the infused amino acid mixture (both P < .0001). We conclude that intravenous infusion of amino acids increases the fractional rate of mixed muscle protein synthesis, but addition of glutamine to the amino acid mixture does not further stimulate muscle protein synthesis rate in healthy young men and women.


J Appl Physiol 2002 Sep;93(3):813-22 Related Articles, Links

Exercise-induced immunodepression- plasma glutamine is not the link.

Hiscock N, Pedersen BK.

Copenhagen Muscle Research Centre and Department of Infectious Diseases, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.

The amino acid glutamine is known to be important for the function of some immune cells in vitro. It has been proposed that the decrease in plasma glutamine concentration in relation to catabolic conditions, including prolonged, exhaustive exercise, results in a lack of glutamine for these cells and may be responsible for the transient immunodepression commonly observed after acute, exhaustive exercise. It has been unclear, however, whether the magnitude of the observed decrease in plasma glutamine concentration would be great enough to compromise the function of immune cells. In fact, intracellular glutamine concentration may not be compromised when plasma levels are decreased postexercise. In addition, a number of recent intervention studies with glutamine feeding demonstrate that, although the plasma concentration of glutamine is kept constant during and after acute, strenuous exercise, glutamine supplementation does not abolish the postexercise decrease in in vitro cellular immunity, including low lymphocyte number, impaired lymphocyte proliferation, impaired natural killer and lymphokine-activated killer cell activity, as well as low production rate and concentration of salivary IgA. It is concluded that, although the glutamine hypothesis may explain immunodepression related to other stressful conditions such as trauma and burn, plasma glutamine concentration is not likely to play a mechanistic role in exercise-induced immunodepression.


Effect of glutamine and protein supplementation on exercise-induced decreases in salivary IgA.

Krzywkowski K, Petersen EW, Ostrowski K, Link-Amster H, Boza J, Halkjaer-Kristensen J, Pedersen BK.

The Copenhagen Muscle Research Centre, Rigshospitalet, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark.

Postexercise immune impairment has been linked to exercise-induced decrease in plasma glutamine concentration. This study examined the possibility of abolishing the exercise-induced decrease in salivary IgA through glutamine supplementation during and after intense exercise. Eleven athletes performed cycle ergometer exercise for 2 h at 75% of maximal oxygen uptake on 3 separate days. Glutamine (a total of 17.5 g), protein (a total of 68.5 g/6.2 g protein-bound glutamine), and placebo supplements were given during and up to 2 h after exercise. Unstimulated, timed saliva samples were obtained before exercise and 20 min, 140 min, 4 h, and 22 h postexercise. The exercise protocol induced a decrease in salivary IgA (IgA concentration, IgA output, and IgA relative to total protein). The plasma concentration of glutamine was decreased by 15% 2 h postexercise in the placebo group, whereas this decline was abolished by both glutamine and protein supplements.None of the supplements, however, was able to abolish the decline in salivary IgA. This study does not support that postexercise decrease in salivary IgA is related to plasma glutamine concentrations.


Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2001 Oct;281(4):C1259-65 Related Articles, Links

Effect of glutamine supplementation on exercise-induced changes in lymphocyte function.

Krzywkowski K, Petersen EW, Ostrowski K, Kristensen JH, Boza J, Pedersen BK.

Copenhagen Muscle Research Centre and Department of Infectious Diseases, Rigshospitalet, 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible role of glutamine in exercise-induced impairment of lymphocyte function. Ten male athletes participated in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study. Each athlete performed bicycle exercise for 2 h at 75% of maximum O(2) consumption on 2 separate days. Glutamine or placebo supplements were given orally during and up to 2 h postexercise. The trial induced postexercise neutrocytosis that lasted at least 2 h. The total lymphocyte count increased by the end of exercise due to increase of both CD3(+)TCR alpha beta(+) and CD3(+)TCR gamma delta(+) T cells as well as CD3(-)CD16(+)CD56(+) natural killer (NK) cells. Concentrations of CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells lacking CD28 and CD95 on their surface increased more than those of cells expressing these receptors. Within the CD4(+) cells, only CD45RA(-) memory cells, but not CD45RA(+) naive cells, increased in response to exercise. Most lymphocyte subpopulations decreased 2 h after exercise. Glutamine supplementation abolished the postexercise decline in plasma glutamine concentration but had no effect on lymphocyte trafficking, NK and lymphokine-activated killer cell activities, T cell proliferation, catecholamines, growth hormone, insulin, or glucose. Neutrocytosis was less pronounced in the glutamine-supplemented group, but it is unlikely that this finding is of any clinical significance. This study does not support the idea that glutamine plays a mechanistic role in exercise-induced immune changes.


Effect of carb intake on plasma glutamine

Int J Sport Nutr 1998 Mar;8(1):49-59 Related Articles, Links

Effect of low- and high-carbohydrate diets on the plasma glutamine and circulating leukocyte responses to exercise.

Gleeson M, Blannin AK, Walsh NP, Bishop NC, Clark AM.

School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, England.

We examined the effects of a low-carbohydrate (CHO) diet on the plasma glutamine and circulating leukocyte responses to prolonged strenuous exercise. Twelve untrained male subjects cycled for 60 min at 70% of maximal oxygen uptake on two separate occasions, 3 days apart. All subjects performed the first exercise task after a normal diet; they completed the second exercise task after 3 days on either a high-CHO diet (75 +/- 8% CHO, n = 6) or a low-CHO diet (7 +/- 4% CHO, n = 6). The low-CHO diet was associated with a larger rise in plasma cortisol during exercise, a greater fall in the plasma glutamine concentration during recovery, and a larger neutrophilia during the postexercise period. Exercise on the high-CHO diet did not affect levels of plasma glutamine and circulating leukocytes. We conclude that CHO availability can influence the plasma glutamine and circulating leukocyte responses during recovery from intense prolonged exercise.


Clin Nutr 2002 Oct;21(5):423-9 Related Articles, Links

Carbohydrate supplementation during intense exercise and the immune response of cyclists.

Bacurau RF, Bassit RA, Sawada L, Navarro F, Martins E Jr, Costa Rosa LF.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of carbohydrate supplementation upon some aspects of the immune function in athletes during intense indoor cycling. METHODS: Twelve male athletes cycled for 20 min at a velocity corresponding to 90% of that obtained at the anaerobic threshold and rested for 20 min. This protocol was repeated six times. The athletes received, during the trial, water ad libitum, or a solution of carbohydrate (95% glucose polymers and 5% fructose) at 10% (w/v), 1 g kg h every 20 min, starting at the 10th minute of the first exercise period, plus extra water ad libitum. RESULTS: Exercise induced a reduction in peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation (37%) as well as in the production of cytokines by cultured cells (interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-2 (IL-2), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), by 37%, 35%, 26% and 16%, respectively). All of these changes were prevented by the ingestion of a carbohydrate drink by the athletes, except that in IFN-gamma production, which was equally decreased (17%) after the second trial. The concentration of plasma glutamine, an important fuel for immune cells, was decreased in the placebo group but maintained in the group that received carbohydrate. CONCLUSION: Carbohydrate supplementation affects positively the immune response of cyclists by avoiding or minimizing changes in plasma glutamine concentration

An excerpt from "Appetite For Construction
Building Results From Research"
by John M. Berardi

Should I Spend my Hard-Earned Money on Glutamine or Hookers?

.... A high protein diet provides a big whack of glutamine as it is. In fact, if you follow standard bodybuilding protein recommendations, about 10% of your total dietary protein intake is composed of glutamine (milk proteins are composed of somewhere between 3 — 10% glutamine while meat is composed of about 15% glutamine). This means that a high protein diet (400g/day) already provides me with about 40g of glutamine.

• While the theorists still cling to the idea that since glutamine helps clinical stress, it might help with exercise stress, it‚s important to note that exercise stress has got nothin‚ on surgery, cancer, sepsis, burns, etc. For example, when compared with downhill running or weight lifting, urinary nitrogen loss is 15x (1400%) greater in minor surgery, 25x (2400%) greater in major surgery, and 33x (3200%) greater in sepsis. When it comes to the immune response, it‚s about 9x (800%) greater with surgery. When it comes to metabolic increase, it‚s 7x (600%) greater with burn injury, and when it comes to creatine kinase release; it‚s about 2x (100%) greater with surgery. As I said, exercise has got nothin‚ on real, clinical stress. It‚s like trying to compare the damage inflicted by a peashooter and that inflicted by a rocket launcher.

• The major studies examining glutamine supplementation in otherwise healthy weightlifters have shown no effect. In the study by Candow et al (2001), 0.9g of supplemental glutamine/kg/day had no impact on muscle performance, body composition, and protein degradation. Folks, that's 90g per day for some lifters.

• The majority of the studies using glutamine supplementation in endurance athletes have shown little to no measurable benefit on performance or immune function.

• And with respect to glycogen replenishment in endurance athletes, it's interesting to note that the first study that looked at glycogen resynthesis using glutamine missed a couple of things. Basically, the study showed that after a few glycogen depleting hours of cycling at a high percentage of VO2 max interspersed with very intense cycle sprints that were supramaximal, a drink containing 8g of glutamine replenished glycogen to the same extent as a drink containing 61g of carbohydrate.

The problem was that during the recovery period, a constant IV infusion of labeled glucose was given (i.e., a little bit of glucose was given to both groups by IV infusion). While this isn't too big of a deal on its own since the infusion only provided a couple of grams of glucose, the other problem is that during glycogen depleting exercise, a lot of alanine, lactate, and other gluconeogenic precursors are released from the muscle.

What this means is that there's a good amount of glucose that will be formed after such exercise, glucose that will be made in the liver from the gluconeogenic precursors and that will travel to the muscle to replenish glycogen. Therefore, without a placebo group that receives no calories, carbohydrates, or glutamine, we have no idea of knowing whether or not the placebo would have generated the same amount of glycogen replenishment as the glutamine group or the glutamine plus carbohydrate group. To say it another way, perhaps there's a normal glycogen replenishment curve that was unaffected by any of the treatments.

• And finally, with respect to the claims that glutamine might increase cell swelling/volume (something I once believed was a reality), we decided to test this theory out in our lab using multifrequency bioelectric impedance analysis as well as magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The pilot data that's kicking around has demonstrated that glutamine supplementation has no effect on total body water, intracellular fluid volumes, or extracellular fluid volumes (as measured by mBIA) and has no effect on muscle volume (as measured by nMRS)...
well I respectfully disagree

studies in my opinion area dime a dozen, I have some studies as well that refute many of ther above claims.

one has to do with preseving the lean muscle mass of burn granted burn patients don't workout, but indeed there body has been put under tremendous stress, and the studies I found support the conclusive fact that Glutamine helps immune function, increases lean muscle mass, and generally staves of the stress of catabolic events
Now it is vital to supplement with the right kind of glutamine....the powdered white crystal crap simply wont do..............Glutamine, and Glutamine Peptides, bonded with some others protiens create a unique and most obsorbable form of thre stuff

here are some citations


1. Shabert & Ehrlich (editors;1994), Avery Publishing Group, NY. "The Ultimate Nutrient Glutamine: The Essential Non-essential Amino Acid".

2.Grimble (1994), Annual Review of Nutrition 14, 419 - 447. "The Significance of Peptides In Clinical Nutrition".

3. Scheppach et al. (1994), Gastroenterology 107, 429 - 434. "Effect of Free Glutamine and Alanyl-Glutamine Dipeptide on Mucosal Proliferation of the Human Ileum and Colon".

4. Miname et al. (1992), Gastroenterology 103, 3 - 11. "Characteristics and Mechanism of Glutamine Dipeptide Absorption in Human Intestine".

5. Adibi (1987), Metabolism 36, 1001 - 1011. "Experimental Basis For Use of Peptides As Substrates For Parenteral Nutrition".

6. Adibi (1971), Journal of Clinical Investigation 50, 2266 - 2275. "Intestinal Transport of Dipeptides In Man: Relative Importance of Hydrolysis and Intact Absorption".

7. Adibi & Mercer (1973), Journal of Clinical Investigation 52, 1586 - 1594. "Protein Digestion In Human Intestine As Reflected In Human Mucosal and Plasma Amino Acid Concentrations After Meals".

8. Rooyackers et al. (1994), Thesis University of Limburg, The Netherlands. "Muscle Wasting and the Role of Glutamine: Metabolic Studies In a Catabolic Rat Model".

9. Kee et al. (1994) Metabolism 43, 1373 - 1378. "The Effect of Dipeptide Structure On Dipeptide and Amino Acid Clearance In Rats".

Now for burn patients


the studies.................

Aulick LH, Wilmore DW: Increased peripheral amino acid release following bum injury. Surgery, 85: 560-565, 1979.

Lonf C, Shaffel M: Metabolic response to injury and illness; Estimation of energy and protein need from indirect calorimetry and nitrogen balance. J PEN, 3: 452-456, 1979.

Wemerman J, Brandt R: The effect of stress hormones on the interorgan flux of amino acids and the concentration of free amino acids in skeletal muscle. Clin Nutr., 4: 207-216, 1985.

Wememess J, Vinsars E: Glutamine but not branches chain amino acids reduce the loss of muscle glutamine after surgical trauma. Metabolism, 38: 63-67, 1989.

Silk D, Fairclough P, Clark M, Hegarty J, Marrs T: Use of peptides rather than free amino acid nitrogen source in chemically defined elemental diets. JPEN, 4: 548-553, 1990.

Roberts P, Zaloga G: Dietary bioactive peptides. In New Horizons: Society of Critical Care Medicine vol 1: Fullerton CA: 1994, pp 237-250.

Furst P, Abers S, Stehle P: Evidence for a nutritional need for glutamine in catabolic patients. Kidney Int, 36: 287-291, 1989.

Stehle P, Mertes N: Effect of parenteral glutamine peptide supplements on muscle glutamine loss and nitrogen balance after major surgery. Lancet, i: 230-33, 1989.

Welbourne T: Increased plasma bicarbonate and growth hormone after an oral glutamine load. Am J Clin Nutr, 61: 1058-1062, 1995.

Wustemann M, Tate N, Elia H: Effect of intramuscular glutamine concentration on muscle protein synthesis estimated after injury using a constant infusion. Proc Nutr. Soc. 53: 59, 1993

Khan K, Wustemann M, Elia M: The effect of severe dietary restoration on intramuscular glutamine concentrations and protein synthesis rate. Clin Nutr, 10: 120-126, 1991.

Gottlich M, Narden G. Incidence and effect of gentamine depletion in burn patients. JPEN 1994; 17:235-237.

Lacey J. Is glutamine a conditionally essential amino acid? Nutr Rev 1990; 48:297-308.

New R. Glutamine nutrition and metabolism. FASEB 1996; 10:829-837.

Ziegler T, Wilmore D. Safety and metabolic effects of glutamine administration in humans. JPEN 1990; 14:132-146.

Glutamine/insulin/Growth Hormone connection by Huck Finn
Hey fellas.For those of you that are unaware,glutamine is the most highly concentrated amino acid present in muscle tissue.A lack of it can be severely detrimental,not only to training/growth,but overall health as well(as it supports healthy immune system function).I've dug up yet another interesting read from the notorious Dharkam on this special amino acid,and drugs that work to effectively enhance its absorbtion/prevent its escape.ENJOY.....
If some hormones cause glutamine depletion(cortisol being a primary culprit),then others have the opposite effect.Insulin is your first ally in glutamine manipulation.Glutamine is one of the few amino acids whose entry into the muscle cell can be enhanced by insulin,and you can certainly see the advantage of that.Any attempt to load up on glutamine should take advantage of an insulin-boosting effect.Some of the favorable actions of insulin are brought about by its influence on sodium.Insulin helps your muscle cells get rid of the extra sodium,which is a very interesting property in light of the sodium invasion that normally follows training.What's more,the anabolic effects of insulin and glutamine reinforce each other and can only be maximum when both are present.
Growth hormone(GH)was made to work with glutamine,and vice versa.Bodybuilders have long been aware of the close relationship between the two because the fact that oral glutamine can increase GH.On the other hand,they may not be aware that GH also increases glutamine levels in both blood and muscles without the necessity of any particular dietary alterations.Therefore,GH is truly the mighty ally you're looking for in glutamine manipulation.One of the ways GH works is to limit the wasting of glutamine in the liver,where it can be transformed into urea.The urea is ultimately excreted in the urine,which means the glutamine is wasted,simply because there's a catabolic process at work.Research has shown that GH shunts the"extracted glutamine nitrogen from urea via hapatic glutamate release".The newly formed glutamate can be transformed into glutamine in the muscle cells.So,instead of allowing glutamine to be urinated as a waste product,GH favors the recycling of it.GH also has another major preserving effect on glutamine in the kidneys.One of the major reasons glutamine degradation is accelerated after training is that lactic acid accumulates in the blood.That lowers blood plasma pH and forces the kidneys to extract circulating glutamine at a very fast pace.GH helps your kidneys to get rid of the acid load and as a result reduces their need for glutamine.Oral glutamine synergizes with GH at that point,not only by increasing the GH level,but also by helping the hormone get rid of the lactic acid that's generated by training.Other favorable effects of GH on glutamine are brought about indirectly by the elevation of Insulin-like growth-factor(IGF-1),a peptide that shares many of the positive actions of insulin on glutamine.
Well,you fellas that are using GH and insulin should really consider loading up on glutamine in conjunction with these hormones in the future(if not already doing so)as you can see glutamine has the ability to ENHANCE their performance,and vice versa.As always,hope you guys enjoyed,and happy growing.....Huck

HHAJDO would you be interested in trying a form of glutamine that no one has?

for free?

I think it may change your mind


I do believe that glutamine is effective in preventing catabolism caused by clinical stress, but the amount of stress caused by exercise is not anywhere near stress caused by burn injuries, surgery, etc.
Check the excerpt from Berardi's article below...

I also believe that personal experience is more important than studies...
If you feel that a supplement is working for you, then you should by all means use it regardless of what the studies say....
If there is new form of glutamine available, I'd be interested in giving it a try..

... While the theorists still cling to the idea that since glutamine helps clinical stress, it might help with exercise stress, it‚s important to note that exercise stress has got nothin‚ on surgery, cancer, sepsis, burns, etc. For example, when compared with downhill running or weight lifting, urinary nitrogen loss is 15x (1400%) greater in minor surgery, 25x (2400%) greater in major surgery, and 33x (3200%) greater in sepsis. When it comes to the immune response, it‚s about 9x (800%) greater with surgery. When it comes to metabolic increase, it‚s 7x (600%) greater with burn injury, and when it comes to creatine kinase release; it‚s about 2x (100%) greater with surgery. As I said, exercise has got nothin‚ on real, clinical stress. It‚s like trying to compare the damage inflicted by a peashooter and that inflicted by a rocket launcher.

• The major studies examining glutamine supplementation in otherwise healthy weightlifters have shown no effect. In the study by Candow et al (2001), 0.9g of supplemental glutamine/kg/day had no impact on muscle performance, body composition, and protein degradation. Folks, that's 90g per day for some lifters.
well great

can you pm your email, and we can talk there, I will send you a sample, about a pound

again it is imperative to understand the differences between l-glutamine, glutaimine, and gluatimine peptides

even i can't pretend toi be a scientist on the subject, but the differnce has been night and day for me, and everyone I have given it too.

keep an open mind, although the results will speak for themselves:) :40oz:

when the body goes under extra ordinary stress be it in sickness, working oout, dieting, or the demands of daily life ....the body releases glutamine form the muscle skelital system.

supplementing with an exogenous source that is effective and bioavailable at all times will de something, I state that that "something" will be noticed
also it has a great effect on one's health. If you notice sometimes when you sweat in gym you almost have a ammonia type smell. The high protein diet that you are most likely on is converting to ammonia in ones brain, which is why some have the belief that high protein diet can be bad for us. Intake of glutamine pretty much prevents that. I love glutamine btw.
yep Glutamine expells excess amonia form the body

hard to not make the stuff NOT sound like a panacia, but really I think it is

again I am somewhat biased................but we did not get into this for $$ we got into it because of the products unique properties
Not sure

I am not entirely sure you need it while "ON"

however if you take the peptide bonded version available now at DIRECT CONNECT NUTRTION

it would help combat the oxidative stresses of workoing out.

so it wiould be very helpful post workout and cardio


oh here is the antioxidant benifits in a nut shell
glutamine peptides have the antioxidant action similar to 3-5 servings of fruit or vegetables based on ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) for vitamins C, E, and beta-carotene. Glutamine peptides offer 300 times more ORAC antioxidant equivalents as compared to free glutamine.


Vitamin E (500mg) 116
Vitamin C (500mg) 2830
3-5 servings of fruits and vegetables 1950
B-carotene (250mg) 300
Bound amino acid glutamine (5-7g) 3.5-5.4
Protein hydrolysate (10-15g) 1100-1650